Future-Mindedness Extractions

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Bursuk, L. I. (1998). The effects of a school-based cognitive-behavioral intervention program on the depression scores of sixth-grade students: A comparison outcome study.

Citation
Bursuk, L. I. (1998). The effects of a school-based cognitive-behavioral intervention program on the depression scores of sixth-grade students: A comparison outcome study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences (Vol. 59). US: ProQuest Information & Learning.

Abstract
The effects of a school-based cognitive-behavioral intervention approach on the depression scores of sixth grade students were examined in the study. Two hundred and one sixth grade students served as participants in one of four experimental groups: treatment group, attention-placebo group, delayed treatment group, and no treatment control group. All groups, except the control group, participated in the school-based program called "learned optimism." The learned optimism program is an eight-week curriculum-based program designed to assist adolescents in developing a more optimistic self-explanatory style that contributes to resiliency and positive mental health. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) on three occasions: before the learned optimism program began (pretest), immediately after the first eight-week program was terminated (posttest 1) and eight weeks later, after the second eight-week program was terminated (posttest 2/follow-up). The results were unexpected. They showed only a significant difference on CDI total scores between the treatment group and delayed treatment group immediately following both groups' participation in the learned optimism program. No significant differences on CDI total scores were found at any other time between or within any of the four groups. Some significant differences were found on CDI subscales between the treatment and delayed treatment groups, but not in the expected direction. Results from an informal questionnaire completed by participants showed that most liked the learned optimism program and it made them feel happier. Plausible explanations for the findings were discussed along with limitations of the study and recommendations for future research in this area.

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Day, J. D., Borkowski, J. G., Punzo, D., & Howsepian, B. (1994). Enhancing possible selves in Mexican American students.

Citation
Day, J. D., Borkowski, J. G., Punzo, D., & Howsepian, B. (1994). Enhancing possible selves in Mexican American students. Motivation and Emotion, 18(1), 79-103.


Abstract
This project assessed the modifiability of "possible selves" in young Mexican American children. Three intervention conditions were compared in a pre- and posttest design: child-only intervention, parent and child intervention, and a no-intervention control. Following eight intervention sessions, children in the two intervention groups showed significant gains in understanding the characteristics associated with becoming a good student and in recognizing the value of education in bringing about future occupational goals. Children in the intervention conditions also reported greater interest in becoming a physician, judge, or pilot--occupations they had directly experienced during training. The parent intervention phase contributed little to augmenting the positive results attributable to the child intervention component.


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Destin, M. & Oyserman, D. (2009). From assets to school outcomes: How finances shape children’s perceived possibilities and intentions.

Citation
Destin, M. & Oyserman, D. (2009). From assets to school outcomes: How finances shape children’s perceived possibilities and intentions. Psychological Science, 20(4), 414-418.

Abstract
People do not always take action to attain their desired possible selves—after all, whether consciously or nonconsciously, taking current action makes sense if there is an open path toward attaining the desired self, but not if paths are closed. Following this logic, children from families with fewer assets may lower their expectations for school success and plan to engage in less effort in school. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of experimentally manipulating mind-set about college as either ‘‘closed’’ (expensive) or ‘‘open’’ (can be paid for with need-based financial aid) among low-income early adolescents. Adolescents assigned to an open-path condition expected higher grades than those assigned to a closed-path condition (Study 1, n = 48, predominantly Hispanic and Latino seventh graders) and planned to spend more time on homework than those assigned to a no-prime control condition (Study 2, n = 48, predominantly African American seventh graders).

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Destin, M. & Oyserman, D. (2010). Incentivizing education: Seeing schoolwork as an investment, not a chore.

Citation
Destin, M. & Oyserman, D. (2010). Incentivizing education: Seeing schoolwork as an investment, not a chore. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 846-849.

Abstract
Most American children expect to attend college but because they do not necessarily spend much time on schoolwork, they may fail to reach their imagined ‘‘college-bound” future self. The proposed identity-based motivation model helps explain why this gap occurs: Imagined ‘‘college-bound” identities cue school-focused behavior if they are salient and feel relevant to current choice options, not otherwise. Two studies with predominantly low-income and African American middle school students support this prediction. Almost all of the students expect to attend college, but only half describe education-dependent (e.g., law, medicine) adult identities. Having education-dependent rather than education-independent adult identities (e.g., sports, entertainment) predicts better grades over time, controlling for prior grade point average (Study 1). To demonstrate causality, salience of education-dependent vs. education- independent adult identities was experimentally manipulated. Children who considered education- dependent adult identities (vs. education-independent ones) were eight times more likely to complete a take-home extra-credit assignment (Study 2).

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Ferrari, L., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2012). Evaluation of an intervention to foster time perspective and career decidedness in a group of Italian adolescents.

Citation
Ferrari, L., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2012). Evaluation of an intervention to foster time perspective and career decidedness in a group of Italian adolescents. The Career Development Quarterly, 60(1), 82-96.

Abstract
A structured 10-didactic unit intervention was devised to foster adolescents' time perspective and career decidedness. The study was conducted with 50 adolescents who were selected from a group of 624; 25 of the participants were randomly assigned to the control group and 25 were assigned to the experimental group. They were selected according to their level of career indecision and poor propensity to look to the future. A series of repeated measure analyses of variance were carried out to evaluate pre- and posttest differences between the experimental and control groups regarding time perspective and career decidedness. At posttest, the experimental group showed higher levels of continuity, hope, and career decidedness than did the control group. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.

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Gilboy, S. (2005). Students’ optimistic attitudes and resiliency program: Empirical validation of a prevention program developing hope and optimism.

Citation
Gilboy, S. (2005). Students’ optimistic attitudes and resiliency program: Empirical validation of a prevention program developing hope and optimism. ProQuest Information & Learning, US.

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to experimentally evaluate the Students’ Optimistic Attributions and Resiliency (SOAR) program opposite the treatment control SCARE (Student Created Anger Reduction Education) program in order to assess SOAR’s effects across different target behavioral and cognitive outcome measures. The SOAR program is based on the theories of learned optimism and hope theory. Specifically, the answer was sought to the question: Is SOAR effective in preventing and reducing depression, as measured by the Children’s Depression Inventory, while increasing individual levels of hope (Hope Scale) and learned optimism (Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire)? A culturally diverse sample of 201 5th and 6th grade students from an urban public grade school was included in the study. A final sample of 149 students was included in analyses for Time 2 at the end of the intervention, and 80 students were included in the Time 3 analyses five months after the intervention. Results showed students exposed to the SOAR program reflected significantly lower levels of depression at Time 2 but no differences in levels of optimism and hope. At Time 3, only the depressed students from both treatment groups indicated a sustained reduction in depression with the SOAR treatment group showing a more pronounced effect over the control group. Overall, the results supported the efficacy of the SOAR program.

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Kaylor, M., & Flores, M. M. (2007). Increasing academic motivation in culturally and linguistically diverse students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

Citation
Kaylor, M., & Flores, M. M. (2007). Increasing academic motivation in culturally and linguistically diverse students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19(1), 66-89.

Abstract
According to research, students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds have lower rates of high school graduation and university attendance. There is little research regarding interventions to address these issues. The current study compared the effects of two programs designed to increase academic motivation. Forty-seven high school female athletes from culturally and linguistically diverse and economically disadvantaged backgrounds participated in the study. The programs were implemented over a 12-week period, 2 days per week within the school day. One group received instruction using a program that was designed by the school’s physical education faculty. The other group received instruction using the Possible Selves program (Hock, Schumaker, & Deshler, 2003). The researchers investigated the effects of the programs with regard to the students’ level of hope for the future as measured by the Children’s Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1994), records of the students’ grades and number of administrative behavioral referrals, students’ self-reports about their participation, and researchers’ evaluation of the students’ goals. The results did not indicate a difference in the students’ hopes for the future. There was little difference in overall grade point averages and no difference in behavioral referrals between the two groups. The students’ perceptions of their participation in the programs were similar. However, the students in the Possible Selves group indicated that they received more support from an adult during their program, and they reported higher levels of effort toward academics than the comparison group. The most significant finding was a difference in the quality of goals written. The Possible Selves group wrote goals and action plans that were more specific and realistic.

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Lee, J. & Cramond, B. (1999). The positive effects of mentoring economically disadvantaged students.

Citation
Lee, J. & Cramond, B. (1999). The positive effects of mentoring economically disadvantaged students. Professional School Counseling, 2(3), 172-178.

Abstract
Investigated whether participation in a formal mentoring program for students in all grades improved self-efficacy, aspiration, and possible selves for disadvantaged elementary (N = 72) and secondary school students (N = 58) and whether there is a critical length of time that a relationship must exist before there is a significant improvement. Mentored students were divided into 2 subgroups according to the length of time that they have been involved in the mentoring relationship: (1) students mentored for 6 mo or less, (2) mentored for 7–12 mo, and (3) mentored for more than one year. Students on the waiting list for mentoring served as controls. Ss completed self-report questionnaires which assessed self-efficacy, aspiration, and possible selves. Results indicate that participation of economically disadvantaged Ss in the mentoring program improved their aspiration. Only Ss mentored for more than 1 yr had significantly higher aspirations than students on the waiting list. None of the findings with respect to self-efficacy and possible selves indicated a significant improvement in mentored Ss regardless of the length of time they had been involved in the mentoring relationship.

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Owens, R. L. & Patterson, M. M. (2013). Positive psychological interventions for children: A comparison of gratitude and best possible selves approaches.

Citation
Owens, R. L. & Patterson, M. M. (2013). Positive psychological interventions for children: A comparison of gratitude and best possible selves approaches. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 174(4), 403-428.

Abstract
Many studies have found benefits of positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude promotion or thinking about best possible selves, for adolescents and adults. Almost no research, however, has been conducted on the efficacy of such interventions for children. The authors’ primary goal was to compare the outcomes of gratitude promotion and best possible selves interventions to a control condition, using a sample of elementary school–aged children (N = 62, ages 5–11 years). Children participated in once-weekly intervention sessions in which they were asked to draw a picture of something for which they were grateful that day (gratitude condition), a future version of themselves as happy and engaged (best possible selves condition), or something they had done that day (control condition). Analyses of the content of children’s drawings indicated that children of this age were capable of articulating things for which they were grateful and positive future selves. Outcomes for the gratitude condition did not differ from the control condition; however, participants in the best possible selves condition showed greater gains in self-esteem than those in the gratitude or control conditions.

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Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action.

Citation
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 188-204.

Abstract
Puzzled by the gap between academic attainment and academic possible selves (APSs) among low income and minority teens, the authors hypothesized that APSs alone are not enough unless linked with plausible strategies, made to feel like “true” selves and connected with social identity. A brief intervention to link APSs with strategies, create a context in which social and personal identities felt congruent, and change the meaning associated with difficulty in pursuing APSs (n _ 141 experimental, n _ 123 control low-income 8th graders) increased success in moving toward APS goals: academic initiative, standardized test scores, and grades improved; and depression, absences, and in-school misbehavior declined. Effects were sustained over a 2-year follow-up and were mediated by change in possible selves.

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Portnoi, L., Guichard, J., & Lalleman, N. (2004). The effect of career interventions designed to increase self-knowledge on the self-concepts of adolescents.

Citation
Portnoi, L., Guichard, J., & Lalleman, N. (2004). The effect of career interventions designed to increase self-knowledge on the self-concepts of adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 484-497.

Abstract
This paper reports a study that used a quasi-experimental design to examine if a career intervention designed to increase self-knowledge enabled self-discovery or self-construction, determined by the structure of the personality inventory used. This study, situated within the theoretical model of Markus’s research in self-schemata (1977), used instruments that measured the Big Five personality factors. Results showed that after only one exercise designed to increase self-knowledge, high school students in the experimental group elaborated ‘‘self-schemata’’ that encompassed the five dimensions corresponding to the structure of the instrument used. Findings suggested that the self-knowledge tool constituted a sort of structured ‘‘looking glass’’ in which young people saw themselves reflected according to the dimensions in the inventory used.

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Sands, M. M. & Heilbronner, N. N. (2014). The impact of Direct Involvement I and Direct Involvement II experiences on secondary school students’ social capital, as measured by co-cognitive factors of the Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory.

Citation
Sands, M. M. & Heilbronner, N. N. (2014). The impact of Direct Involvement I and Direct Involvement II experiences on secondary school students’ social capital, as measured by co-cognitive factors of the Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory. Gifted Child Quarterly, 58(4), 297-310.

Abstract
A mixed-methods study grounded in Renzulli’s Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory examined the impact of different types of volunteer experiences on the six co-cognitive factors (Optimism, Courage, Romance With a Topic/Discipline, Sensitivity to Human Concerns, Physical/Mental Energy, and Vision/Sense of Destiny) associated with the development of social capital in high school students. Results indicated that volunteer experiences, which encourage students’ selection of and active involvement with community-based projects, may positively affect Physical/Mental Energy. Also, allowing students face-to-face time with dissimilar volunteer recipients may positively affect Sensitivity to Others. Implications for educators and researchers are discussed.

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Schonert-Reichl, K. A. & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre- and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence.

Citation
Schonert-Reichl, K. A. & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre- and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1, 137-151.

Abstract
We report the results of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the effectiveness of the Mindfulness Education (ME) program. ME is a theoretically derived, teacher-taught universal preventive intervention that focuses on facilitating the development of social and emotional competence and positive emotions, and has as its cornerstone daily lessons in which students engage in mindful attention training (three times a day). Pre- and early adolescent students in the 4th to 7th grades (N=246) drawn from six ME program classrooms and six comparison classrooms (wait-list controls) completed pretest and posttest self-report measures assessing optimism, general and school self-concept, and positive and negative affect. Teachers rated pre- and early adolescents on dimensions of classroom social and emotional competence. Results revealed that pre- and early adolescents who participated in the ME program, compared to those who did not, showed significant increases in optimism from pretest to posttest. Similarly, improvements on dimensions of teacher-rated classroom social competent behaviors were found favoring ME program students. Program effects also were found for self-concept, although the ME program demonstrated more positive benefits for preadolescents than for early adolescents. Teacher reports of implementation fidelity and dosage for the mindfulness activities were high and teachers reported that they were easily able to integrate the mindful attention exercises within their classrooms. Theoretical issues linking mindful attention awareness to social and emotional competence and implications for the development of school-based interventions are discussed.

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